Water & air

"Do you not see that Allah sends down rain from the sky and makes it flow as springs [and rivers] in the earth; then He produces thereby crops of varying colours; then they dry and you see them turned yellow; then He makes them [scattered] debris. Indeed in that is a reminder for those of understanding." Qur'an, 39:21

In the beginning of time when God created the world, he placed the sun and the moon to give night and day. The two most essential ingredients added for survival of mankind and animals were clean air and pure water. The air for breathing and the water for drinking are the most precious elements necessary to live; without these there would be no life on earth.


Children of a culture born in a water-rich environment, we have never really learned how important water is to us. We understand it, but we do not respect it. -- William Ashworth

Water is a basic human right. All living things on earth need water to exist, but it must be clean and unpolluted. It's important that fresh water is available for drinking, washing, agriculture and sanitation.

Water covers 70% of our planet, but only 3% of the world's water is fresh water fit for human consumption and two-thirds of that is not available for use as it tucked away in frozen glaciers. Hence the water scarcity means that millions of people throughout the world do not have access to safe clean water to drink and bathe in. In addition, human behaviour contributes to the water scarcity in the following ways:

- Overuse of water on people animals and land.
- Overuse of water in recreational activities.
- Pollution from oil and chemicals
- Poor sewage system
- Droughts

Source of water pollution:

Sewage (Waste Water) - Sewage is another name for waste water from domestic and industrial processes.

Agricultural Pollution - use of pesticides and fertilisers can cause water pollution and so can disposal of sheep dip and spreading of slurries and manure.

Oil - during delivery and deliberate disposal of waste oil to drainage systems cause water pollution. Drinking water would be unsafe to drink and oil released into oceans can destroy wildlife and the eco-system that sustains them.

Radioactive Substances - Radioactive substance used in nuclear power plants can pollute water. Water can also be polluted by industrial and medical materials and radioactive waste.

River dumping - dumping of supermarket trolleys, bicycles, garden cuttings and electronic waste into rivers causes water pollution, harms wildlife and increase risk of flooding.


Government laws - introduce legislations to reduce and control pollution in European waters.

Role of World Health Organisation to campaign for control and prevention of water pollution globally.

Effects of Water Scarcity

- of lives due to lack fresh clean drinking Water
- Starvation would occur as agriculture land would be deprived of water, hence crops and meat shortage.
- Diseases is likely is clean water is not available for drinking and bathing.
- Sanitation issues arise and cause health problems Without access to clean water, there is no way to clean food, dishes, or people. When people are not


What can you do in the home?


- Shorten your showers by 1 or 2 minutes.
- Always turn the water off when you brush your teeth.
- Turn off the water when you wash your hair.
- To save water and time try washing your face, or brush your teeth while taking a shower.


- Don't let water run when you are cleaning vegetables.
- You can turn off the water when you are scrubbing the dishes with soap.
- Make sure to keep a jug of water in the refrigerator.


- Wash your laundry 2 times a week.
- Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway or sidewalk.
- Always check for leaks around the house.


- Go to a car wash that recycles water. - If you can wash your car on the lawn, so your watering the grass too.
- Use a sprinkler that delivers big drops closer to the ground, smaller drops and mist usually evaporate before they hit the ground.


- If possible collect water from your roof so you can water your garden.
- Plant succulents that don't need a lot of watering
- Plant in the Fall when conditions are cooler and rainfall is more plentiful.
- Water your plants in the evening when it is dark, so the water won't evaporate
- To save water and time try washing your face, or brush your teeth while taking a shower.
- Water only when necessary most plants die from over-watering than under-watering.
- Wash your pets outdoors near an area on your lawn that needs water.
- Don't water your lawn on windy days, the water can blow away, or evaporate.


Clean air is essential for our health and quality of life, but the atmosphere is far from being 100% or totally clean or free from contamination because pollutants are released into the atmosphere due to human activities such as emission from road and traffic, landfill sites industries and power stations.

Air pollution is a serious problem, causing significant harm to all forms of life. The pollution can cause destruction to the natural environment, animal kingdom and human beings. Pollution can have devastating effect on the whole planet. Responsible for global warming causing extreme climate changes resulting in flooding, arid land, famine etc.

Importance of clean air

We need clean air for our respiratory function - we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide which is the gas that plants and trees need for photosynthesis - production of food and oxygen.

In sum humans, animals and plants depend on each other for the production of oxygen and carbon dioxide for survival. If the air in the atmosphere is polluted with other gases or chemicals then humans and animals health is under threat.

Pollution and its impact

Air pollution from transport

Leaded petrol from transport emit harmful gases: nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. (Rowland and cooper 1983).

Effects: Can have a detrimental affect on health eg asthma , infections respiratory conditions.

Pollutants emitted from industry:

Suphur dioxide emitted from power station mixes with air to form sulphuric acid which will later fall as acid rain. some nitrogen released from industry mixes with moisture and form nitric acid acid which falls as acid rain too.

Effects: harm vegetation , plants, crops and trees. It can destroy wildlife and pose health risk to humans. people with heart conditions and severe lung disease may be more senstivie to changes in pollution. Greater risk in children and asthma sufferers.

Acid can harm plants, damge trees and destroy forest in many parts of the world. It can damage soil which can affect the photosynthesis process of plant growth.

It can affect wild life too, causing breathing problems and contaminate their food or water.

Acid rain responsible for the rapid decay of many old historical buildings made from limestone or marble.

Pollution emitted from landfill sites

Everyday household rubbish ends up in the landfill sites. Overtime, the rubbish decay emitting methane gas into the atmosphere

Methane is a greenhouse gas that is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide. It is also a flammable gas that can become dangerous if allowed to build up in concentration.


Influence climate change
Cause global warming
Pollutes air, soil and water
Cause potential health problems


what can you do?

Every one can help reduce air polluttion by changing his or her old habits and lifestyle.

- Composting your food scraps and green waste in a compost bin. Properly composting the organic kitchen waste will ensure that as waste decomposes, it forms carbon dioxide, rather than methane, and so has less of a greenhouse gas impact.

- Turn lights off when not in use
- Insulate the home
- Recycle waste

- Reduce use of fertilisers
- Use organic soil
- Do composte gardening
- Go organic / grow own veg and fruit


- Fit cars with catlytic converts using unleaded petrol keeping engine tune and driving slowly
- When buying new car, consider a Hybrid car or electric cars
- Try cutting back on air travels - take fewer flights and staying longer at destination or favour holiday places closer to home.
- Consider travelling by trains and boats instead of planes
- Use buses and train instead of cars
- Walk or cycle to school or work

Promoting greener living:

- Use media to convey message to reduce pollution and promote clean air
- Education in school, colleges and work place to raise awareness

Role of industry in preventing and minimising air pollution

- keeping equipment up to date
- redesigning or replacing products being made that produce less waste.
- spray lakes and forest with liming method to reduce acidity and hence reduce wild life.
- Power station reduce by using special equipment and new pollutant free chemical


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